State Department Store in Moscow ✮ Sights of Russia 2019

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The State Department StoreRussian: Gosudarstvenyi Universalnyi Magazin or Государственный универсальный магазин, abbreviated GUM is a shopping mall which houses about a hundred premium class stores, cafes, and restaurants. This is the best-known shopping centre in Russia, and it has been an integral part of the architectural ensemble of Red Square for over a century. The GUM’s front facade marks its boundary opposite the Kremlin. The store itself is also a monument of Russian Art Nouveau architecture, which makes a walk along its arcades a pleasure to luxury shopping lovers and art connoisseurs alike.

HISTORY

Historically, the area adjacent to Red Square has always been a trading place with all sorts of small shops; this is reflected in some street names which have survived to this day, e.g. Vetoshny LaneRussian: Ветошный переулок meaning ‘rag’, Rybny LaneRussian: Рыбный переулок meaning ‘fish’, Okhotny RyadRussian: Охотный ряд meaning ‘hunters’ row’ metro station. In the 17th century, the number of small shops here reached four thousand, making it one of the biggest markets in Europe. The small shops were arranged in parallel rows, while the vast trading area was divided into three parts, demarcated by NikolskayaRussian: ulitsa Nikolskaya or улица Никольская, IljinkaRussian: ulitsa Ilinka or улица Ильинка, and VarvarkaRussian: ulitsa Varvarka or улица Варварка streets. For this reason, it started to be segmented into the upper, middle, and lower rows.

As far back the 18th century, a design project was developed to construct a large building in the manner of a trading centre which would replace the need for individual shops. In 1815, the O. Bove an Italian-Russian neoclassical architectdesigned building of the Upper Trading RowsRussian: Verkhnie torgovye ryady or Верхние торговые ряды was erected on the site of the present-day GUM. The venue, which occupied an entire city block, was shared between leaseholders. However, having been very quickly constructed, the building soon fell into disrepair and turned into a labyrinth of dirty and dark underpasses. A nation-wide competition to design a new building of the Upper Trading Rows was announced in 1888. First prize was awarded to A. PomerantsevRussian architect, master of the last stage of eclecticism in Moscow architecture, educator, second went to R. Klein (who later designed the Museum of Fine Arts in Volkhonka streetRussian: ulitsa Volkhonka or улица Волхонка).  A. Pomerantsev was the project architect and V. Shukhova Russian engineer-polymath, scientist and architect the chief construction engineer.

If the Russian history is a subject of your interest and you want to know, for example, what is the oldest church in Moscow, what are the famous monasteries around Moscow, which style of Moscow architecture you can see only in this town, you can read on our website pages about Kremlin Moscow and “History and Architecture”.

ARCHITECTURE AND INTERIORS

The building, like most buildings of the late 19th century, was designed in the style of historicism whose cornerstone is the use of architectural elements and details typical of a particular epoch in history. Carved window surrounds, small keeled arches and the decoration of the grand staircase are all reminiscent of 17th century architecture, i.e. the famous Russian patternwork (uzorochjeRussian: узорочье). The architect paid special attention to the front facade as well as the corner which connects Red Square and Nikolskaya street. In addition, the Upper Trading Rows echo the architecture of the building of the Historical MuseumRussian: Istoricheskiy muzey or Исторический музей, also built in an historic style.

Once inside, you get a totally different impression of the GUM. It is not just one building, but a kind of miniature city. It is formed by three street-like arcades intersecting at right angles and featuring a fountain in the center of the building, located under a glass dome which lets in natural sunlight. The arcades have transparent arched skylights, giving the impression that you are outdoors. Framing the arcades are three-storey buildings housing numerous stores. Each level has concourses and walkways which link different arcades. Inside as well as outside, three tiers of decoration can be seen, marking the three storeys. This is the architect’s way of conveying the medieval atmosphere of a whole trading quarter while turning it into a small town sheltered from any rough weather or inconvenience – basically, anything that might prevent its visitors from having an enjoyable time inside.

The Upper Trading Rows were constructed to meet the new specifications of the time. The building was equipped with central heating, electric lighting and running water. The innovation lay in the use of metal support structures, which allowed for a large number of decorative elements with no constructive function. But more importantly, the construction features arched roofs with slanting trusses designed by V. Shukhov. Glass panes were attached to the steel framework, which was instrumental not only in covering long and wide arcades and providing illumination but also in in increasing the efficiency of the construction in terms of overall cost.

The same principle was used to build a number of arcades in Europe among which are the famous Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan and the Galleria Umberto I in Naples.

Today, the GUM arcades host different exhibitions, while the mall itself, which has long become an architectural and historical landmark, is unmissable for all who find themselves in Moscow.

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Aleksandra Medennikova

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definition of gum department store and synonyms of gum department store (English)

  The GUM façade faces Red Square.

GUM (Russian: ГУМ, pronounced as goom, as abbreviation of the Russian: Главный универсальный магазин Glavnyi Universalnyi Magazin, meaning «main universal store») is the name of the main department store in many cities of the former Soviet Union, known as State Department Store (Russian: Государственный универсальный магазин, Gosudarstvennyi Universalnyi Magazin) during the Soviet times. Similarly named stores were found in some Soviet republics and post-Soviet states. The most famous GUM is the large store in the Kitai-gorod part of Moscow facing Red Square. It is actually a shopping mall. Prior to the 1920s the location was known as the

Upper Trading Rows (Russian: Верхние торговые ряды).

  Moscow GUM

With the façade extending for 794 ft (242 m) along the eastern side of Red Square, the Upper Trading Rows were built between 1890 and 1893 by Alexander Pomerantsev (responsible for architecture) and Vladimir Shukhov (responsible for engineering). The trapezoidal building features an interesting combination of elements of Russian medieval architecture and a steel framework and glass roof, a similar style to the great 19th century train stations of London. Nearby, also facing Red Square, is a very similar building, known formerly as the Middle Trading Rows.

  Inside the store during 1893: elongated shop galleries are bridged with innovative metal-and-glass vaults, designed by Vladimir Shukhov

It was Catherine II of Russia who commissioned Giacomo Quarenghi, a Neoclassical architect from Italy, to design a huge trade center along the east side of Red Square. The existing structure — defined by William Craft Brumfield as «a tribute both to Shukhov’s design and to the technical proficiency of Russian architecture toward the end of the 19th century» — was built to replace the previous trading rows that had been designed by Joseph Bove after the 1812 Fire of Moscow.[1]

The glass-​roofed design made the building unique at the time of construction. The roof, the diameter of which is 46 ft (14 m), looks light, but it is a firm construction made of more than 50,000 metal pods (about 819 short tons (743 t), capable of supporting snowfall accumulation. Illumination is provided by huge arched skylights of iron and glass, each weighing some 820 short tons (740 t) and containing in excess of 20,000 panes of glass. The facade is divided into several horizontal tiers, lined with red Finnish granite, Tarusa marble, and limestone. Each arcade is on three levels, linked by walkways of reinforced concrete.

By the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the building contained some 1,200 stores. After the Revolution, the GUM was nationalised and continued to be used as a department store until Joseph Stalin converted it into office space in 1928 for the committee in charge of his first Five Year Plan.[1] After the suicide of Stalin’s wife Nadezhda during 1932, the GUM was used briefly to display her body.[2]

After reopening as a department store during 1953, the GUM became one of the few stores in the Soviet Union that did not have shortages of consumer goods, and the queues of shoppers were long, often extending entirely across Red Square.

[3]

  Upper Trading Rows by night

At the end of the Soviet era, GUM was partially, then fully privatized, and it had a number of owners before it ended up being owned by the supermarket company Perekryostok. During May 2005, a 50.25% interest was sold to Bosco di Ciliegi, a Russian luxury-goods distributor and boutique operator. As a private shopping mall, it was renamed in such a fashion that it could maintain its old abbreviation and thus still be called GUM. However, the first word Gosudarstvennyi (‘state’) has been replaced with Glavnyi (‘main’), so that GUM is now an abbreviation for «Main Universal Store».

  Inside view of the impressive structure and finish applied to the building

It is still open nowadays, and is a popular tourist destination for those visiting Moscow. Many of the stores feature fashionable brand names familiar in the West; locals refer to these as the «exhibitions of prices», the joke being that no one could afford actually to buy any of the items displayed. As of 2005, there were approximately 200 stores.

There is a similar historic department store that rivals GUM in size, elegance and opulent architecture named Central Universal Store (Tsentralniy Universalniy Magazin, abbreviated as TsUM). It sprawls just east of the Bolshoi Theatre.

  References

  • William Craft Brumfield: «The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture», University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 0-520-06929-3.
  • Elizabeth Cooper English: “Arkhitektura i mnimosti”: The origins of Soviet avant-garde rationalist architecture in the Russian mystical-philosophical and mathematical intellectual tradition”, a dissertation in architecture, 264 p., University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
  • Rainer Graefe, Jos Tomlow: “Vladimir G. Suchov 1853-1939. Die Kunst der sparsamen Konstruktion.”, 192 S., Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 1990, ISBN 3-421-02984-9.

  External links

Coordinates: 55°45′17″N 37°37′17″E / 55.75472°N 37.62139°E / 55.75472; 37.62139

   

dictionary.sensagent.com

GUM (department store)

The GUM façade faces Red Square.

GUM (Russian: ГУМ, pronounced as goom, as abbreviation of the Russian: Главный универсальный магазин Glavnyi Universalnyi Magazin

, meaning «main universal store») is the name of the main department store in many cities of the former Soviet Union, known as State Department Store (Russian: Государственный универсальный магазин, Gosudarstvennyi Universalnyi Magazin) during the Soviet times. Similar-named stores were in some Soviet republics and post-Soviet states. The most famous GUM is a large store in the Kitai-gorod part of Moscow, facing Red Square. It is actually a shopping mall. Prior to the 1920s the place was known as the Upper Trading Rows (Russian: Верхние торговые ряды).

The GUM (department store) in 2011

Moscow GUM

With the façade extending for 242 m (794 ft) along the eastern side of Red Square, the Upper Trading Rows were built between 1890 and 1893 by Alexander Pomerantsev (responsible for architecture) and Vladimir Shukhov (responsible for engineering). The trapezoidal building features an interesting combination of elements of Russian medieval architecture and a steel framework and glass roof, a similar style to the great 19th century train stations of London. Nearby, also facing Red Square, is a very similar building, known formerly as the Middle Trading Rows.

Inside the store during 1893: elongated shop galleries are bridged with innovative metal-and-glass vaults, designed by Vladimir Shukhov Inside view of the impressive structure and finish applied to the building

The existing structure — defined by William Craft Brumfield as «a tribute both to Shukhov’s design and to the technical proficiency of Russian architecture toward the end of the 19th century» — was built to replace the previous trading rows that had burnt down during 1825. The glass-roofed design made the building unique at the time of construction. The roof, the diameter of which is 14 m (46 ft), looks light, but it is a firm construction made of more than 50,000 metal pods (about 819 short tons (743 t), capable of supporting snowfall accumulation. Illumination is provided by huge arched skylights of iron and glass, each weighing some 820 short tons (740 t) and containing in excess of 20,000 panes of glass. The facade is divided into several horizontal tiers, lined with red Finnish granite, Tarusa marble, and limestone. Each arcade is on three levels, linked by walkways of reinforced concrete.

By the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the building contained some 1,200 stores. After the Revolution, the GUM was nationalised and continued to be used as a department store until Joseph Stalin converted it into office space in 1928 for the committee in charge of his first Five Year Plan. After the suicide of Stalin’s wife Nadezhda during 1932, the GUM was used briefly to display her body.

Upper Trading Rows by night

After reopening as a department store during 1953, the GUM became one of the few stores in the Soviet Union that did not have shortages of consumer goods, and the queues of shoppers were long, often extending entirely across Red Square.

At the end of the Soviet era, GUM was partially then fully privatized, and it had a number of owners before it ended owned by the supermarket company Perekryostok. During May 2005, a 50.25% interest was sold to Bosco di Ciliegi, a Russian luxury-goods distributor and boutique operator. As a private shopping mall, it was renamed in such a fashion that it could maintain its old abbreviation and thus still be called GUM. However, the first word Gosudarstvennyj (‘state’) has been replaced with Glavnyj (‘main’), so that GUM is now an abbreviation for «Main Universal Store».

It is still open nowadays, and is a popular tourist destination for those visiting Moscow. Many of the stores feature fashionable brand names familiar in the West; locals refer to these as the «exhibitions of prices», the joke being that no one could afford actually to buy any of the items displayed. As of 2005, there were approximately 200 stores.

There is a similar historic department store that rivals GUM in size, elegance and opulent architecture named Central Universal Store (Tsentralniy Universalniy Magazin, abbreviated as TsUM). It sprawls just east of the Bolshoi Theatre.

External links

References

  • William Craft Brumfield: «The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture», University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 0-520-06929-3.
  • Elizabeth Cooper English: “Arkhitektura i mnimosti”: The origins of Soviet avant-garde rationalist architecture in the Russian mystical-philosophical and mathematical intellectual tradition”, a dissertation in architecture, 264 p., University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
  • Rainer Graefe, Jos Tomlow: “Vladimir G. Suchov 1853-1939. Die Kunst der sparsamen Konstruktion.”, 192 S., Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 1990, ISBN 3-421-02984-9.

Coordinates: 55°45′17″N 37°37′17″E / 55.75472°N 37.62139°E / 55.75472; 37.62139

dal.academic.ru

GUM (department store)

The GUM façade faces Red Square.

GUM (Russian: ГУМ, pronounced as goom, as abbreviation of the Russian: Главный универсальный магазин Glavnyi Universalnyi Magazin, meaning «main universal store») is the name of the main department store in many cities of the former Soviet Union, known as State Department Store (Russian: Государственный универсальный магазин, Gosudarstvennyi Universalnyi Magazin) during the Soviet times. Similar-named stores were in some Soviet republics and post-Soviet states. The most famous GUM is a large store in the Kitai-gorod part of Moscow, facing Red Square. It is actually a shopping mall. Prior to the 1920s the place was known as the Upper Trading Rows (Russian: Верхние торговые ряды).

The GUM (department store) in 2011

Moscow GUM

With the façade extending for 242 m (794 ft) along the eastern side of Red Square, the Upper Trading Rows were built between 1890 and 1893 by Alexander Pomerantsev (responsible for architecture) and Vladimir Shukhov (responsible for engineering). The trapezoidal building features an interesting combination of elements of Russian medieval architecture and a steel framework and glass roof, a similar style to the great 19th century train stations of London. Nearby, also facing Red Square, is a very similar building, known formerly as the Middle Trading Rows.

Inside the store during 1893: elongated shop galleries are bridged with innovative metal-and-glass vaults, designed by Vladimir Shukhov Inside view of the impressive structure and finish applied to the building

The existing structure — defined by William Craft Brumfield as «a tribute both to Shukhov’s design and to the technical proficiency of Russian architecture toward the end of the 19th century» — was built to replace the previous trading rows that had burnt down during 1825. The glass-roofed design made the building unique at the time of construction. The roof, the diameter of which is 14 m (46 ft), looks light, but it is a firm construction made of more than 50,000 metal pods (about 819 short tons (743 t), capable of supporting snowfall accumulation. Illumination is provided by huge arched skylights of iron and glass, each weighing some 820 short tons (740 t) and containing in excess of 20,000 panes of glass. The facade is divided into several horizontal tiers, lined with red Finnish granite, Tarusa marble, and limestone. Each arcade is on three levels, linked by walkways of reinforced concrete.

By the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the building contained some 1,200 stores. After the Revolution, the GUM was nationalised and continued to be used as a department store until Joseph Stalin converted it into office space in 1928 for the committee in charge of his first Five Year Plan. After the suicide of Stalin’s wife Nadezhda during 1932, the GUM was used briefly to display her body.

Upper Trading Rows by night

After reopening as a department store during 1953, the GUM became one of the few stores in the Soviet Union that did not have shortages of consumer goods, and the queues of shoppers were long, often extending entirely across Red Square.

At the end of the Soviet era, GUM was partially then fully privatized, and it had a number of owners before it ended owned by the supermarket company Perekryostok. During May 2005, a 50.25% interest was sold to Bosco di Ciliegi, a Russian luxury-goods distributor and boutique operator. As a private shopping mall, it was renamed in such a fashion that it could maintain its old abbreviation and thus still be called GUM. However, the first word Gosudarstvennyj (‘state’) has been replaced with Glavnyj (‘main’), so that GUM is now an abbreviation for «Main Universal Store».

It is still open nowadays, and is a popular tourist destination for those visiting Moscow. Many of the stores feature fashionable brand names familiar in the West; locals refer to these as the «exhibitions of prices», the joke being that no one could afford actually to buy any of the items displayed. As of 2005, there were approximately 200 stores.

There is a similar historic department store that rivals GUM in size, elegance and opulent architecture named Central Universal Store (Tsentralniy Universalniy Magazin, abbreviated as TsUM). It sprawls just east of the Bolshoi Theatre.

External links

References

  • William Craft Brumfield: «The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture», University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 0-520-06929-3.
  • Elizabeth Cooper English: “Arkhitektura i mnimosti”: The origins of Soviet avant-garde rationalist architecture in the Russian mystical-philosophical and mathematical intellectual tradition”, a dissertation in architecture, 264 p., University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
  • Rainer Graefe, Jos Tomlow: “Vladimir G. Suchov 1853-1939. Die Kunst der sparsamen Konstruktion.”, 192 S., Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 1990, ISBN 3-421-02984-9.

Coordinates: 55°45′17″N 37°37′17″E / 55.75472°N 37.62139°E / 55.75472; 37.62139

en.academic.ru